• The Center for Equity for English Learners announces its newest publication, Ensuring Equity and Excellence for English Learners: An Annotated Bibliography for Research, Policy, and Practice. Comprised of over 350 annotations of both recent and seminal literature, this annotated bibliography supersedes the previous version and serves as a resource for researchers, policymakers, educators, and advocates who are working for equity and excellence for ELs.

  • National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2018). 2017-2018 Baldridge excellence framework (education). Retrieved from https://www.nist.gov/baldrige/publications/baldrige-excellence-framework/education.

    Truong, N. (2017). Next generation learning modules for ELLs. Vienna, VA: International Association for K–12 Online Learning (iNACOL). Full article.

    Lacy, M. (2001). The need for greater cultural literacy. Retrieved from http://www.houstonculture.org/hifc/sept11.html

    Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Mind, brain, experience, and schools. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. Full article.

    Sheppard, B. (2000). The 21st century learner. Washington, DC: Institute of Museum and Library Services. Full article.

  • Abedi, J. (2011). Assessing English language learners: Critical issues. In M. Basterra., E. Trumbull, & G. Solano-Flores (Eds.), Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity (pp. 49–71). New York: NY: Taylor & Francis.

    Abedi, J. (2010). Linguistic factors in the assessment of English Language Learners. In G. Walford, E. tucker, & M. Viswanathan (Eds.). The Sage handbook of measurement (pp. 129-150). Oxford: Sage Publications.

    Abedi, J. (2010). Research and recommendations for formative assessment with English language learners. In H. Andrade & C. Cizek (Eds.), Handbook of formative assessment (pp. 181–197). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Abedi, J., Leon, S., Kao, J., Bayley, R., Ewers, N., Herman, J., & Mundhenk, K. (2010). Accessible reading assessments for students with disabilities: The role of cognitive, grammatical, lexical, and textual/visual features. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Partnership for Accessible Reading Assessment. Full Article.

    Abedi, J., & Herman, J. (2010). Assessing English language learners' opportunity to learn mathematics: Issues and limitations. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 723–746. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2009). Assessing high school English language learners. In L. Pinkus, Meaningful measurement: The role of assessments in improving high school education in the twenty-first century. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

    Abedi, J. (2009). Validity of assessments for English language learning students in a national/international context. Estudios sobre Educación, 16, 167-183. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2009). English language learners with disabilities: Classification, assessment, and accommodation issues. Journal of Applied Testing Technology 10(2) 1-30. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2008). Classification system for English language learners: Issues and recommendations. Educational Measurement: Issues And Practice, 27(3), 17-31. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2008). Measuring Students' Level of English Proficiency: Educational Significance and Assessment Requirements. Educational Assessment, 13(2/3), 193-214. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2007). Utilizing accommodations in the assessment of English language learners. In N. H. Hornberger (Ed), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 7: Language testing and assessment (pp. 331-348). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science+ Business Media.

    Abedi, J. (2007). Language factors in the assessment of English language learners: The theory and principles underlying language modification approach: Washington, DC: The U.S. Department of Education—LEP Partnership

    Abedi, J. (Ed.) (2007). English language proficiency assessment in the nation: Current status and future practice. Davis: University of California. Full Article.

    Abedi, J. (2007). Impact of Language Complexity on the Assessment of ELL Students: A Focus on Plain Language Assessment. Washington, DC: The Council of Chief Stats School Officers.

    Abedi, J., Hejri, F. and Lord, C. (2007). Validity of Accommodations for ELL students with Disabilities in Mathematics and English Proficiency Content Assessment: Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Department of Educations.

    Abedi, J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Gong, B.; Gottlieb, M.; Ortiz, A.; Pedraza, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Roschewski, P.; and Stack, J. (2007). Assessment and Accountability for Improving Schools and Learning. Principles and recommendations for Federal Law and State and Local Systems. Washington, DC: Forum on Educational Accountability.

  • Davin, K. J., & Heineke, A. J. (2018). The Seal of Biliteracy: Adding students' voices to the conversation. Bilingual Research Journal, 1-17. Full article.

    Hopewell, S., & Butvilofsky, S. (2016). Privileging bilingualism: Using biliterate writing outcomes to understand emerging bilingual learners' literacy achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 39(3-4), 324-338. Full article.

    Penuel, W. R., Briggs, D. C., Davidson, K. L., Herlihy, C., Sherer, D., Hill, H. C., ... & Allen, A. (2016). Findings from a national study on research use among school and district leaders. National Center for Research in Policy and Practice. Technical Report, (1). Full article.

    Marian, V., Shook, A., & Schroeder, S. R. (2013). Bilingual two-way immersion programs benefit academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 36(2), 167-186. Full article.

    Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does—and does not—say. American Educator. Full article.

    Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

    August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Full article.

    Balderraman, M. V., & Diaz-Rico, L. T. (2006). Teaching performance expectations for educating English learners. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Diaz-Rico, L. T., & K.Z., W. (2006). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete k-12 reference guide (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Gold, N. (2006). Successful bilingual schools: Six effective programs in California. San Diego, CA: San Diego County Office of Education. Full article.

    Goldenberg, C. (2006) Improving Achievement for English learners: What the research tells us. Education Week, 25(43), 34-36. Full article.

    Wang, M., Park, Y., & Lee, K. (2006). Korean-English biliteracy acquisition: Cross-language phonological and orthographic transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 148-158.

    Bialystok, E., Luk, G., & Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: Interactions among languages and writing systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 43-61. Retrieved November 9, 2006, from the Academic Search Complete database. Full article.

    Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English language learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363-385. Full article.

    Hakuta, K. (2005). Some perspectives on the status of Asian-Americans in the early 21st century. Paper presented at the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE). Full article.

    Howard, E., Lindholm-Leary, K., Sugarman, J., Christian, D., and Rogers, D. 2005. Guiding principles for dual language education. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Full article.

    Lavadenz, M. (2005). "Como hablar en silencio (Like speaking in silence): Issues in language, culture and identity of Central Americans in Los Angeles". In: A.C. Zentella, (Ed.). Building on strength: Language and literacy in Latino families and communities. Teachers College Press: NY.

    Lindholm-Leary, K. (2005). Review of research and best practices on effective features of dual language education programs. Center for Applied Linguistics, 35, 17-23.

    Genesee, F., Paradis, J., Crago, M. (2004). Dual Language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

    Hornberger, N. H. (2004). The continua of biliteracy and the bilingual educator: Educational linguistics in practice. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 7, 155-171. Full article.

    Kenner, C., Kress, G., Al-Khatib, H., Kam, R., & Tsai, K.C. (2004). Finding the keys to biliteracy: How young children interpret different writing systems. Language and Education, 18 (2), 124-144. Full article.

    Martínez-Roldán, C. M., & Malavé, G. (2004). Language ideologies mediating literacy and identity in bilingual contexts. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 4, 155-180. Full article.

    Ochoa, A. M., & Cadiero-Kaplan, K. (2004). Towards promoting biliteracy and academic achievement: Educational programs for high school Latino English language learners. High School Journal, 87, 27-43. Full article.

    Petitto, L.A., & Dunbar, K. (2004). Proceedings from Conference on Building usable Knowledge in Mind, Brain, & Education '04: New findings from educational neuroscience on bilingual brains, scientific brains, and the educated mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Full article.

    Wang, M., Perfetti, C., & Liu, Y. (2004). Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: Cross-language and writing system transfer. Cognition, 97(1), 67-88. Full article.

    Francis, N., & Gómez, P. R. N. (2003). Language interaction in Náhuatl discourse: The inflèuence of Spanish in child and adult narratives. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 16(1), 1-17.

    Lavadenz, M. (2003). Think aloud protocols: Teaching reading processes to young bilingual students. ERIC Digest EDO-FL-03-14. Center for Applied Linguistics: Washington, D.C.

    Tozcu, A. & Coady, J. (2003). Development of biliteracy skills in Turkish and Armenian: Bilingual development of Armenians in Turkey. International Journal of Social Language, 164, 151-176. Full article.

    Howard, E. & Christian, D. (2002). Two-way immersion 101: Designing and implementing a two-way immersion education program at the elementary level. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Retrieved March 27, 2007, from Full article.

    Lindholm-Leary, K.J. (2001). Dual language education. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

    Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Borsato, G. (2001). Impact of two-way bilingual elementary programs on students' attitudes toward school and college. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Full article.

    Alanis, I. (2000). A Texas two-way bilingual program: Its effects on linguistic and academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 24(3), 225-248. Full article.

    Cummins, J. (2000). Biliteracy, empowerment, and transformative pedagogy. Full article.

    Durgunoglu, A. Y., & Öney, B. (2000). Literacy development in two languages: cognitive and sociocultural dimensions of cross-language transfer. Paper presented at the A Research Symposium on High Standards in Reading for Students From Diverse Language Groups: Research, Practice & Policy, Washington DC. Full article.

    Hakuta, K., Butler, Y.G, & Witt, D. (2000). How long does it take English learners to attain proficiency? The University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute: Stanford University. Full article.

    Hornberger, N. H., & Skilton-Sylvester, E. (2000). Revisiting the continua of biliteracy: International and critical perspectives. Language and Education, 14(2), 96-122. Full article.

    Garcia-Vasquez, E., Vazquez, L.A., Lopez, I.C., & Ward, W. (1997). Language proficiency and academic success: Relationships between proficiency in two languages and achievement among Mexican-American students. Bilingual Research Journal, 21(4), 395-408. Full article.

    Howard, E. & Christian, D. (1997). Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association '97: The Development of Bilingualism and Biliteracy in Two-way Immersion Students. Chicago, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence. Full article.

    Stuart-Smith, J. & Martin, D. (1997). Investigating literacy and pre-literacy skills in Punjabi/English schoolchildren. Educational Review, 49(2), 181-197. Full article.

    Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.

    Collier, V.P. (1995). Promoting academic success for ESL students: Understanding second language acquisition for school. Elizabeth, NJ: New Jersey Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages-Bilingual Educators.

    Griego-Jones, T. (1994). Assessing students' perceptions of biliteracy in two-way bilingual classrooms. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 13, 79-93. Full article.

    Chiseri-Strater, E. (1991). The public and private discourse of university students. Portsmouth: Boyton/Cook Publishers.

    Lindholm, K.J., & Aclan, Z. (1991). Bilingual proficiency as a bridge to academic achievement: Results from bilingual/immersion programs. Journal of Education, 173(2), 99-113. Full article.

    Lindholm, K.J. (1991). Theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence for academic achievement in two languages. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13(1), 3-17. Full article.

    Collier, V.P. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 23(3), 509-531. Full article.

  • Horwitz, E. K. (2008). Becoming a language teacher: A practical guide to second language learning and teaching. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Lavadenz, M., & Armas, E. (2008). Differentiation instruction for English learners. California English, 13(4), 16-20.

    Jalongo, M. R. (2007). Beyond benchmarks and scores: Reasserting the role of motivation and interest in children's academic achievement. International Focus, 83(6), 395-407. Full article.

    Baker, P. B., & Digiovanni, L. W. (2005). Narratives on culturally relevant pedagogy: Personal responses to the standardized curriculum Current Issues in Education, 8. Full article.

    Facella, M., Rampino, K., & Shea, E. K. (2005). Effective teaching strategies for English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 209-221. Full article.

    Meltzer, J. and Hamann, E.T. (2005). Focus on classroom teaching and learning strategies. Providence, RI: Education Alliance Northeast and Islands Regional Education Lab, Brown University.

    Reiss, J. (2005). Teaching content to English language learners: Strategies for secondary school success. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Richard-Amato, P. A., & Snow, M. A. (2005). Academic success for English language learners: Strategies for k-12 mainstream teachers. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

    Gray, T. & Fleischman, S. (2004) Successful strategies for English language learners. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 84-85. Full article.

    Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

    Meltzer, J. and Hamann, E.T. (2004). Focus on Motivation and Engagement for English Learners. Providence, RI: Education Alliance Northeast and Islands Regional Education Lab, Brown University.

    Chang, J. (2003). Strategies for effective two-way immersion (TWI) programs: A Chinese American perspective. NABE News(6), 28- 31. Full article.

    Chapman, E. (2003). Alternative approaches to assessing student engagement rates. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8(13). Full article.

    Lake, V., & Pappamihiel, N. (2003). Effective practices and principles to support English language learners in the early childhood classroom. Childhood Education, 79(4), 200-203. Full Article.

    Scarcella, R.: 2003, Academic English: A conceptual framework. The University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Technical Report 2003-1. Full article.

    Thornbury, S. (2002). How to teach vocabulary. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

    Kagan, S. (2001). Kagan structures: Research and rationale. Kagan Online Magazine. Full Article.

    Wong Fillmore, L., & Snow, C. E. (2000). What teachers need to know about language. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. ERIC Document ED444379. Full Article.

    Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P. B., & Robbins, J. (1999). The learning strategies handbook. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

    Saunders, W. M., & Goldenberg, C. (1999). Effects of instructional conversations and literature logs on the story comprehension and thematic understanding of English proficient and limited English proficient students. The Elementary School Journal, 99 (4). 277-301. Full article.

    Thornbury, S. (1999). How to teach grammar. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

    Kagan, S. (1997). Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing.

    Armstrong, T. (1996). Understanding Children: Labels can last a lifetime. Learning, 24(6), 41-43. Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (1996). Utopian schools. Mothering(81). Full article.

    Kagan, S. (1995). We can talk: Cooperative learning in the elementary ESL classroom. ERIC Digest. Full Article.

    Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences: Seven ways to approach curriculum. Educational Leadership, 52(3), 26-28. Full article.

    Chamot, A. U., & O'Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

    Nieto, S. (1994). Lessons from students on creating a chance to dream. Harvard Educational Review, 64(4), 392-396. Full article.

    Holt, D. D., Chips, B., & Wallace, D. (1992). Cooperative learning in the secondary school: Maximizing language acquisition, academic achievement, and social development. NCBE Program Information Guide Series 12. Full article.

    Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1988). Cooperative learning: Two heads learn better than one. In context: Awakening the full human potential...in everyone. Full article.

  • Carreira, M., & Kagan, O. (2018). Heritage language education: A proposal for the next 50 years. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 152-168. Full article.

    Hakuta, K. (2018). California English learner roadmap. California Department of Education. Sacramento, CA. Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (2010). Special education and the concept of neurodiversity. American Institute for Learning and Human Development. Full article.

    Lucas, T., Villegas, A. M., & Freedson-Gonzalez, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education: Preparing classroom teachers to teach English language learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4), 361-373. Full article.

    Fitzgerald, J., & Graves, M. (2005). Reading supports for all. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 68-71. Full article.

    Gandara, P., Maxwell-Jolly, J., & Driscoll, A. (2005). Listening to teachers of English language learners: A survey of California teachers' challenges, experiences, and professional development needs. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED491140). Full article.

    Short, D., & Echevarria, J. (2005). Teacher skills to support English language learners. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 8-13. Full article.

    Zwiers, J. (2005). The third language of academic English. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 60-63. Full article.

    MacGillivray, L., & Rueda, R. (2003). Listening to inner city teachers of English language learners: Differentiating literacy instruction. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED479984). Full article.

    Joint Policy Committee. (2001). Success for English language learners: Teacher preparation policies and practices. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(1), 199-208.

    Wink, J. (2000). Critical Pedagogy: Notes from the Real World. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Calderon, M. (1997). Staff development in multilingual multicultural schools. (Report No. EDO-UD-97-5). New York, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED410368). Full article.

    Menkart, D., Vincent, A., Wei, D., & Wolpert, E. (1993). Multicultural education: Strategies for linguistically diverse schools and classrooms. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Full article.

    Moll, L.C., Amanti, D.N., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132-141. Full article.

    Collier, V. P. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 23(3), 509-531. Full article.

  • Epstein, J. L., & Salinas, K. C. (2004). Partnering with families and communities. Educational Leadership, 61(8), 12-18. Full article.

    Banks, James. (2003). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Chang, J. (2001). Scaffold for school-home collaboration: Enhanced reading and language development. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Retrieved March 27, 2007. Full article.

    Olsen, L., Bhattacharya, J., Chow, M., Dowell, C., Jaramillo, A., & Pulido Tobiassen, D., et al. (2001). And Still We Speak...Stories of Communities Sustaining and Reclaiming Language and Culture. Oakland, CA: California Tomorrow.

    Nieto, S. (1999). The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning communities. New York, NY: Columbia University Teachers College Press.

    McCaleb, S. (1997). Building communities of learners: A collaboration among teachers, students, families, and community. New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.

    Zuniga, C., & Alva, S. A. (1996). Parents as resources in schools: A community-of-learners perspective. The Journal of Educational Issue of Language Minority Students, 16, 1-14.

    Genesee, F. (1994). Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Abstract.

    Armstrong, T. (1993). 50 ways to bring out your child's best. Family Circle. Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (1993). Sparking creativity in your child. Ladies Home Journal. Full article.

    Moll, L.C., Armanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132-141.

    Cochran, M. & Dean, C. (1991). Home-school relations and the empowerment process. The Elementary School Journal. 91(3), 261-269.

    Armstrong, T. (1989). Little geniuses. Parenting Magazine. Full article.

    Ramirez, J.D., & Douglas, D. (1988). Language minority parents and the school: Bridging the gap. Sacramento, CA: Department of Education Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

  • Adger, C. T. (1996). Language minority students in school reform: The role of collaboration. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearing House on Languages and Linguistics (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED400681). Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (1996). Utopian schools. Mothering (81). Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (2001). Ikswal: Interesting kids saddled with alienating labels. Educational Leadership, 59(3), 38-41. Full article.

    August, D., & Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1997). Improving schooling for language minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    Berman, P., Minicucci, C., McLaughlin, B., Nelson, B., & Woodworth, K. (1995). School reform and student diversity: Case studies of exemplary practices for LEP students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Full article.

    Brooks, K., Adams, S. R., & Morita-Mullaney, T. (2010). Creating inclusive learning communities for ELL students: Transforming school principals' perspectives. Theory Into Practice, 49(2), 145-151. Full article.

    Center on Education Policy. (2005, August). States try harder, but gaps persist: High school exit exams 2005. Washington DC. Full article.

    Darling-Hammond, L. (2001). The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work. Indianapolis, IN: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Darling-Hammond, L. (2004). Standards, accountability, and school reform. Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1047-1085.

    Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Full article.

    Gandara, P. (1994). The impact of education reform movement on limited English proficient students. In B. McLeod (Eds.), Language and learning: Educating linguistically diverse students (45-70). Albany: SUNY Press.

    Genesee, F. (1999). Program alternatives for linguistically diverse students (Educational Practice Report No. 1). Santa Cruz: University of California, Santa Cruz, Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence. (Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Full article.

    Goldenberg, C., & Sullivan, J. (1994). Making change happen in a language minority school: A search for coherence. Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Full article.

    Heineke, A. J., Coleman, E., Ferrell, E., & Kersemeier, C. (2012). Opening doors for bilingual students: Recommendations for building linguistically responsive schools. Improving Schools, 15(2), 130-147. Full article.

    Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 1-55. Full article.

    Nieto, S. M. (2003). Profoundly multicultural questions. Educational Leadership, 60(4), 6-10. Full article.

    Noguera, P. A. (2005). Extended view: School reform and second generation discrimination: Toward the development of bias-free and equitable schools. Institute Race Relations, 30(3), 30-33.

    Olsen, L. (2006). Ensuring Academic Success for English Learners. University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Newsletter, 15(4), 1-7. Full article.

    Olsen, L., Chang, H., De La Rosa Salazar, D., Leona, C., Perez, Z., McClain, G., et al. (1994). The unfinished journey: Restructuring schools in a diverse society. San Francisco, CA: California Tomorrow. Full article.

  • Metlife. (2013).The Metlife survey of the American teacher: Challenges for school leadership. New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance. Full article.

    Henson, R. (2001). Teacher self-efficacy: Substantive implications and measurement dilemmas. College Station, TX (ERIC Document Service Reproduction No. ED452208). Full article.

    Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W.K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248. Full article.

    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: Freeman.

    Armstrong, T. (1996). Understanding children: Labels can last a lifetime. Learning, 24(6), 41-43. Full article.

    Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences: Seven ways to approach curriculum. Educational Leadership, 52(3), 26-28. Full article.

    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.